Tuesday, April 14, 2009



The Nommo vs. Anunaki contradiction (or confusion) is problematic working from post-Sumer records. The amphibious Nommo or Monitors of the Dogon are also found in Baybylonian tradition as we shall discuss. Marduk/Nibiru was also called a “monitor” in Mesopotamian texts, according to Sitchen [2007 paperback ed., Sitchen, Zecharia, The 12th Planet,HarperCollins, New York; p. 238].

“These ancient fragments give accounts of the Babylonian tradition that civilization was originally founded by amphibious beings known as Oannes MuSari, or Annedoti (in Greek).

Regarding the Nommo amphibious race discussed in "The Sirius Mystery," Carl Sagan said,

" . . . stories like the Oannes legend . . . deserve much more critical studies than have been performed heretofore." [Sagan, Carl, and Shklovskii, I.S. "Intelligent Life in the Universe," Delta Books, New York, 1966; p.461. See also, in Temple, Robert K.G., "The Sirius Mystery," Destiny Books, Rochester, Vermont; 1987, comments on that work made by W.H. McCrea, Emeritus professor of Astronomy at the University of Sussex and former President of the Royal Astronomical Society on pp.222-223]

This tradition is in striking agreement with the Dogon tradition of the amphibious Nommos, or 'Monitors' who came from the system of Sirius B to found civilization on earth.” [Temple, Appendix II, p.248, op cit]

Thus, the Oannes to which Sagan referred as an example of legendary extraterrestrial beings are the amphibians of the Dogon.

The Babylonian traditions differ from those appealed to by Zecharia Sitchen concerning the Anunaki, as there are no mentions of another race which was not amphibious in the book of Enki, but as Enki landed in and therefore came from the sea, it could be argued that Anunaki are metaphorically amphibious. However, Sitchen suffers from a posited exactly redundant orbital period of Nibiru of 3600 years, called the Shar. The 50 year orbit of Sirius be is said to have been adjusted astronomically since its initial observation to 60 years (50 is the numeric designation of Enlil).

Is it coincidental that 3600/60 is 60, the same as Anu's hierarchical number, and divided by 10 is 360, the same as the number of degrees in a circle? The two, 60 and 360, can thus be related.

[Sitchen asserts that the Anunaki first landed on earth about 450,000 years ago, which places Enki's arrival about 20,000 years prior to the end of the Wisconsin glaciation (600,000-430,000bp), during which about a third of the earth was covered with ice.] Anu's name is the highest in the base 60 cryptographic numeric system. There were twelve Anunaki in the Great Circle of the Dynasty. The other 11 beneath Anu were designated numerically as follows:

60 – Anu
50 - Enlil
40 - Enki
30 - Nanna
20 - Utu
10 – Ishkur/Adad

Their female counterparts were designated by midpoints of 5 as follows:

55 - Anti
45 - Ninlil
35 - Ninki
25 - Ningal
15 - Innana
5 - Ninhursag

A Sarus is given by Berosus as 3600 years. Sarus and Shar refer to the same period, the names phonetically similar. The first king was Alorus, who reigned ten Sari, or 36000 years. In all, ten kings reigned 120 Sari, or (120 x 3600=) 432,000 years. During the 40th Sari, between 130,400 years and 144000 years, the Oannes/Nommo are reported to have first arrived by Berosus. Accoring to Sitchen, it was 445,000bp-see table on p. 410 of TTP. There, 430,000 is when the ice sheets began to recede.

This provides no assistance to the matter at hand that Nibiru is asserted to be orbiting our own Sun, and is therefore likely to be entirely unrelated to the orbit of Sirius B; I have encountered in Temple no mention of the square of Sirius B's orbit; the Nommo did not come from Sirius B, but rather but rather from the system of Sirius B, and are alleged to have come from a planet orbiting that star.

The designation, "Monitors," attributed to the Nommo both by Berosus and the Dogon tribe, requires a MEANS of monitoring, as, for example, the probe Duncan Lunan, former President of ASTRA (Association in Scotland to Research into Astronautics), and Acting Curator of Airdrie Public Observatory, proposed.

In 1928, Van der Pol in Eindhoven, Holland, after transmitting over the radio waves 3 sounds in rapid succession every 30 seconds, examined the return echoes. They were not as neatly spaced as he had sent. In fact they were highly irregular, ranging from 1 to 30 seconds in delay time. At the time, the discrepancies were explained as fluxuations in the ionosphere, or magnetic disturbances. But the pitch or frequency of the sounds did not change - only the spacing of the echoes.

In the 1970’s, this mystery was carefully examined and deciphered by Lunan. He plotted a vertical axis of the transmitted pulse sequence with a horizontal axis of echo delay time. The result was a picture of the constellation Boötis as it would look 15,000 years ago. There was a message hidden in the dots on his graph. Lunan was able to translate the meaning of these echo delay discrepancies, proving perhaps that they were a purposeful manipulation directed by a highly intelligent extraterrestrial species. He interpreted the message as follows:


Lunan concluded an advanced civilization in the vicinity of Arcturus (Hokulea, the guiding star of Hawaiian mythology) sent an unmanned satellite probe to monitor Earth 15,000 years ago, to be activated by radio waves when Humans reached that technological point in their evolution, and later published his findings.

If a probe within the approximate region of the Sun was monitoring activity within our solar system (and perhaps others in nearby systems), detected the electromagnetic transmissions of the Anunaki, notified the planet orbiting Sirius B (130 to 144,000 years/2 is more than enough time for a signal from the probe to reach their home world and for them to come to earth to check it out), is it possible that, following the arrival of the Oannes (Nommo), the Anunaki reconfigured their time periods in terms of Nommo numerology, or the Sarus? If so, the apparent conflict arising from the instability of Nibiru's orbit which makes it impossible that it could have maintained a 3600 year upon year orbit as Sitchen asserts, evaporates.

There are reasons why this cannot be logically argued within the context of Sitchen's interpretation of The Lost Book of Enki as he translated it. Sitchen asserts without reservation that the Shar is the orbital period of the planet, Nibiru, and nowhere within the clay tablets is any contact by any other extraterrestrial civilization referenced, although the Anunaki did believe in a "Creator of All." Sitchen therefore could not escape the dilemma of a literal repeating 3600-year Shar.

The Sarus as I interpret it either stems from a base 10 multiple of earths own orbit prior to 700 B.C., or, less likely in my opinion, some relationship to the base 60 discussed by Berosus for the Sarus. Velikovsky's discovery, reported and exhaustively documented in Worlds in Collision [Doubleday, 1950], that prior to 700 B.C., all calendars on earth were based upon a years of 360 days, including the Maya year, the TUN, which is also 360 days, upon which the Maya Long Count calendar system is based, attributes the calendar change to a cosmic event. Thus, during the time period Berosus and Sitchen address, the year was 360 earth days in length. Again, 360 is the number of degrees in a circle, and thus it seems more likely that the division of the circle into 360 degrees stems from its representation of earth's own orbital period at that time, which greatly simplifies geometry and astrophysics.

Nevertheless the interplay of base 10 and base 60 is obvious. Could it not be likely that the Shar/Sarus of 3600 years is also a result of that same interplay? The event added five days to the year. Afterward, all civilizations with solar calendars added an extra five days (including the quarter day). I believe the Pyramid of the [365] Niches at El Tajin and the Pyramid of Quetzalcoatl at Xochicalco, Mexico commemorate and correct the calendar change resulting from the event Velikovsky postulated. The extensive ruins of El Tajín are the most impressive reminder of Classic Veracruz civilization. The name "Tajín" is Totonac for ‘thunder, ’ ‘lightning’ or ‘hurricane.’

The Pyramid of the Niches in El Tajin is also equipped with a vertical shaft to determine instances of the Sun zenith passes (e.g., Aveni 1980). They occur in these latitudes twice per year. Thus, the astronomical purpose for the structure cannot be logically disputed. The time of the zenith passes could be predicted with an error of 1-2 days (Klokočník and Vítek, 2005). Further confirmation of Angular Chronology is evident from the two principal orientations of the site. The northern part of the locality on the hill is younger (950-1100, GMT) than the “plain” southern part (300-700 AD). We see the same phenomenon at many sites. At Copán, the Gold Age from 426-820 AD (GMT), is typical. But the first stone structures date from the 9th century B.C.. The earliest grave goods are clearly Olmecoid both in content and design. Using conventional dates, Monte Alban in Oaxaca, Mexico was established by the Zapotecs in the 5th-7th centuries B.C., but its florescence belongs to 5th-8th centuries A.D. There are five phases of evolution of this locality; what we can see now is mostly Monte Albán III from 300-750 AD (GMT). The extraordinary Building J, known also as the “Observatory,” comes from 1st century B.C. – 2nd century AD. These examples are only the tip of the iceberg of data which will ultimately confirm Angular Chronology against all objections, however passionate.

The orbital period of the earth has changed before. The Devonian is a geologic period and system of the Paleozoic era spanning from approximately 416 to 359.2 million years ago, named after Devon, England, where rocks from this period were first studied. During the Devonian, the first fish evolved legs and started to walk on land as tetrapods, the first seed-bearing plants spread across dry land, forming huge forests, and in the oceans, primitive sharks became more numerous than in the Silurian and the late Ordovician, and the first lobe-finned and bony fish evolved. The first ammonite mollusks appeared, and trilobites, the mollusk-like brachiopods, as well as great coral reefs were still common. Devonian rugose corals produced tabulae which, when grouped into solar years, reveal that the orbital period of the earth at that time was 400 days, making each day only 22 hours long. The late Devonian extinction severely affected marine life, and probably accounted for the change in earth's rate of rotation as well.

At the archeological site of Xochicalco, Mexico, Mayan and Zapotec dignitaries met to correct the calendar. As I have previously asserted in our book, Angular Chronology [ 1994, Hobby, Michael M., June M. Hobby, and Troy J. Smith, Zarahemla Foundation, Coto Laurel, Puerto Rico], I interpreted the panel on the right front of the Pyramid of Quetzalcoatl to proclaim, “On this date, five and one-quarter days are added to the length of the year.” Both the Maya group numeral 5, the bar, and the Zapotec unit numeral equivalent, five dots, are shown, the bar above the dots. The deity with whom the change seems to have been associated holds the end of a rope in his left hand which is tied on the other end around a date glyph. His right hand rests upon a quadripartite figure, a square with a single one dot inside, which I take to mean, "The fourth part of one," IE, 1/4th. [This fractional representation should be further studied, as it may lead to improved accuracy in the translation of certain numerical passages in the codices where it may be found to occur]

The “Sun orientation” requires azimuth exactly 90 (270 degrees) for the equinoxes. The azimuth of the sunset/sunrise at the solstices can be computed as: cos a = - sin d / cos f, where d is declination of the object (the Sun in our case, d = 23.50 degrees), f is the geocentric latitute of the site of observation. The azimuth of sunset at summer solstice for the north/south Yucatan becomes a = 64.7 / 65.4 degrees (measured from north to east), and analogically for sunrise/sunset at winter solstice; it yields an east deviation of about 25 degrees (rounded) for the cardinal directions of archaeological structures. Note also that the azimuth of sunset/sunrise in solstices has been indirectly changed due to precession of the Earth’s axis, but only about 0.3 degrees, during the last 2000 years.

Angular Chronology was developed by our realization that a Cardinal Shift had occurred during HISTORICAL Precolumbian time, during which the crust of at least North America and Mesoamerica was rotated to the right (east)of True North, generally by about 15 degrees, with expected local geologic variations. ANGULAR CHRONOLOGY will be available on this website in the near future; It can be purchased via Paypal, but will be shipped from Lulu, which now publishes all six of my books. To date the Cardinal Shift in around 700 B.C. strongly conflicts with conventional dating of the site, which is based upon the Mixtec dynastic sequences, which in turn rely on carbon 14 dates. As one might expect, such an assertion raises strong objections:

“The first major concern is the royal genealogies of the Mixtec people of central and southern Mexico. One of the archaeological monuments found at Xochicalco is the Piedra del Palacio. This monument depicts seven actors and has one calendar round date of 3 Rabbit 2 Quake in the Mixtec Yacunudahui calendar, which was used at this site prior to about 1000 A.D. Five of the seven actors are found in a few Mixtec codices or painted books. These five actors represent a grandfather (male Four Rabbit), his son (male Twelve Iguana), and three grandsons of the grandfather (male Four House, Three Monkey, and Ten Eagle). If one examines royal Mixtec genealogies beginning in the late sixteenth century A.D., one discovers that twenty generations takes one back to the grandfather of this scene. Twenty generations cover approximately 286-600 years. In other words, they date to around 1000 A.D. and not to approximately 1000 B.C.” [Warren, Bruce W., FARMS Review: Volume - 8, Issue - 1, Pages: 118-21; A review of "Angular Chronology: The Precolumbian Dating of Ancient America" by Michael M. Hobby, June M. Hobby, and Troy J. Smith; Provo, Utah: Maxwell Institute, 1996.]

Warren's argument is that, since Mixtec genealogies are dated to around 1000 A.D., to assert that the pyramid commemorates the shift of 700 B.C. must be incorrect. However, within the context of Angular Chronology, such a conclusion is invalid. First, the Pyramid of Quetzalcoatl has no dynastic inscriptions engraved upon it., Other buildings and or monuments on the site, such as the Piedra del Palacio mentioned by Warren, portray Mixtec dynastic sequences.

Secondly, as pointed out in our book, many sites were inhabited both before and after the Cardinal Shift. Therefore, the existence of exteriors which date after the shift have no bearing upon the date of the shift itself. Further, buildings were routinely overlaid or resurfaced, examples of which we give in the book. I also point out, even on the opening leaf, my opinion that Angular Chronology "solves several enigmas in archaeoastronomy and identifies a 500 to 1000 year error in carbon-14 dates in North America and Mesoamerica. It is similar to the discontinuity running across the southern Mediterranean, or known to affect Egyptian dating [by a displacement of 600 years]."

What the shift implies is that the entire block dates encountered at a site, if they date to the time of the shift, must be moved back in time. If they were engraved upon later buildings and monuments, they are irrelevant. The mechanism for the discontinuity in C14 dates is discussed in Angular Chronology[also see, Hobby, Michael M., THE CATASTROPHIC ROLE OF FLUID PRESSURE AND GEOMAGNETIC PHENOMENA IN THE MECHANICS OF OVERTHRUST FAULTING,"; Kronos Vol. IX No. 1 (Fall 1983). It will be uploaded and available on this site within a few weeks.

FARMS is an abbreviation of The Foundation for Ancient Research and Mormon Studies. A contingent of its members hold the opinion that the lands of the Book of Mormon lie within the constraints of Mesoamerica, a model influenced principally by John Sorenson and David Palmer. This model suffers from the fact that the Maya language is one of three entirely unique mother languages. As I determined, the language is neither a variant nor a derivative of either Egyptian nor Hebrew, the two principal languages of the Book of Mormon. In fact, Angular Chronology offers a way out of the dilemma; the time period of the Nephite people of the Book of Mormon is roughly 600 B.C. to just after 400 A.D., which overlaps the Maya civilization.

However, if the dates are pushed back in time, the overlap becomes less relevant, because another people, identified by the Book of Mormon as the Jaredites, existed far earlier, and later absorbed yet another group of Jewish immigrants identified as Mulekites, led by Mulek,the only surviving son of Zedekiah, the last King of Judah, after the Babylonian conquest of Jerusalem, who the Book of Mormon asserts also left Jerusalem subsequent to the time the Nephites fled. The Mulekites adopted the Jaredite language and religion. When the Nephites later stumbled upon them, the two peoples, though both originated in the Hebrew heartland, could not understand each other. The following passage is drawn from the first chapter of the Book of Omni in the Book of Mormon:

12 Behold, I am Amaleki, the son of Abinadom. Behold, I will speak unto you somewhat concerning Mosiah, who was made king over the land of Zarahemla; for behold, he being warned of the Lord that he should flee out of the land of Nephi, and as many as would hearken unto the voice of the Lord should also depart out of the land with him, into the wilderness.
13 And it came to pass that he did according as the Lord had commanded him. And they departed out of the land into the wilderness, as many as would hearken unto the voice of the Lord; and they were led by many preachings and prophesyings. And they were admonished continually by the word of God; and they were led by the power of his arm, through the wilderness until they came down into the land which is called the land of Zarahemla.
14 And they discovered a people, who were called the people of Zarahemla. Now, there was great rejoicing among the people of Zarahemla; and also Zarahemla did rejoice exceedingly, because the Lord had sent the people of Mosiah with the plates of brass which contained the record of the Jews.
15 Behold, it came to pass that Mosiah discovered that the people of Zarahemla came out from Jerusalem at the time that Zedekiah, king of Judah, was carried away captive into Babylon.
16 And they journeyed in the wilderness, and were brought by the hand of the Lord across the great waters, into the land where Mosiah discovered them; and they had dwelt there from that time forth.
17 And at the time that Mosiah discovered them, they had become exceedingly numerous. Nevertheless, they had had many wars and serious contentions, and had fallen by the sword from time to time; and their language had become corrupted; and they had brought no brecords with them; and they denied the being of their Creator; and Mosiah, nor the people of Mosiah, could understand them.
18 But it came to pass that Mosiah caused that they should be taught in his language. And it came to pass that after they were taught in the language of Mosiah, Zarahemla gave a genealogy of his fathers, according to his memory; and they are written, but not in these plates.
19 And it came to pass that the people of Zarahemla, and of Mosiah, did unite together; and Mosiah was appointed to be their king.
20 And it came to pass in the days of Mosiah, there was a large stone [stela] brought unto him with engravings on it; and he did interpret the engravings by the gift and power of God. [As Zarahemla spoke a dialect of the Jaredite language, it is more likely that he directly read the glyphs.]
21 And they gave an account of one Coriantumr, and the slain of his people. And Coriantumr was discovered by the people of Zarahemla; and he dwelt with them for the space of nine moons. [Months; The Hebrew calendar was lunar]
22 It also spake a few words concerning his fathers. And his first parents came out from the tower, at the time the Lord confounded the language of the people; and the severity of the Lord fell upon them according to his judgments, which are just; and their bones lay scattered in the land northward.[Northward means north of the Narrow Neck, the current Isthmus of Panama]

If Mesoamerican dates are pushed back as a block, the Maya are no longer a candidate for the Nephite culture. They do, however, become a candidate for the Jaredite culture. Far more structures were built in the Preclassic than during the Classic and Post Classic periods. The bulk of those structures are oriented to the east of north, an enigma which archaeoastronomers attempted, but were unable to explain, as they were unaware of the Cardinal (crustal) shift. According to the Book of Mormon, the armies of two factions of the Jaredites essentially destroyed each other, which would explain the paucity of the Post Classic. It should be noted, however, that the heartland of the Nephites still could not have been Mesoamerica, but northern South America, as I have addressed elsewhere and will revisit again in another post which confronts the geographic dilemma, which in my opinion, need not exist.

The inclusion of the Fuson hypothesis, which presumes use of a magnetic compass, as a subcategory of Angular Chronology is justified and should be implemented by archaeologists, geologists, and other scholars, although paleomagnetic data is often locally sparse prior to 0 B.C. If, however, it is implemented without an Angular Chronology context, it will achieve only limited results. Angular Chronology divides precolumbian history and sites into two great periods, PRE and POST Cardinal Shift, including resolving clear divisions within individual sites, further resolution within those periods, such as construction phases, reconstruction and overlays, habitation phases, pottery sequence correlation within and between sites, and discontinuities within each can be achieved by applying the Fuson hypothesis where applicable, as recognized by the following statement:

“If the [Fuson] hypothesis is valid, then the alignment of the structures and their age are correlated; knowing the former we could derive the latter and vice versa.” Drawn from: "ON AN UNRESOLVED ORIENTATION OF PYRAMIDS AND CEREMONIAL CENTERS IN MESOAMERICA," (Jaroslav Klokočník, Jan Kostelecký, František Vítek) [ ]

“Fuson (1969) wrote: 'When one considers the obsession the Maya had for mathematical precision, it is difficult to imagine, why he failed to carry it forth in his ultimate creation, the ceremonial center…'

Fuson mentioned more than 100 major ceremonial centers in Yucatan (Mexico, Guatemala, Honduras), erected mostly between AD 200 and 1200 (his Fig. 1) and found (by means of geodetic measurements) prevailing east “deflection” (see Figs 1a-e here, also classical book of Morley 1956).” [ibid]

Astronomers attempted, also unsuccessfully, to determine the reason for the east-of-north orientation, particularly typical of the Preclassic, by far the longest interval of Mayan history, as noted by Krupp:

"One of the most puzzling facts about building orientations in Mesoamerica is the east-of-north arrangement of so many ceremonial centers spread throughout the area over such a long time base. A single astronomical explanation is not possible for all that we can see." [Krupp, E.C., "In Search of Ancient Astronomers," New York, McGraw-Hill; 1978; p. 201]

Summarizing the alignments (the deflections from the cardial direction) of many buildings in Mesoamerica (see, Aveni's calendar explanation, 1980), the prevailing east deviations are evident. But,
(i) for the calendar explanation, one would expect more regular distribution of the directions in the "fan" [“fan” denotes declinations around the cardinal north-south (west-east) directions of structures], both east AND west declinations, during an entire calendar year. Thus,
(ii) if the directions are based on certain datums connected, for example, to the begining of contruction of the buildings, then the distribution of the east and west declinations should also be more or less regular during year, excluding possibly the interval of heavy rains.
(iii) The rains in Yucatan prevail from May to October, but the remaining months without rains correspond to both east and west declinations. Thus, the prevailing east deflections remain unexplained if one relies solely upon the calendar.

"In conclusion to this Section: we see that a significant MINORITY of the buildings has an astronomical orientation or meaning (see also Fig 74 in Aveni, 1980, or Appendix A of that book . . .). There is a small portion of proved astronomical observatories and astronomicaly orientated structures. The other explanations (namely the calendar hypothesis and its various alternatives) are only partially successful and only locally applicable." [Klokočník, ET AL; Section 3, "ASTRONOMICAL AND CALENDAR ORIENTATION;" op cit]

"The change in true north could not have occurred in recent historical time, and certainly not in the A.D. period; yet the sites we are discussing are all dated by conventional dating at or long after the birth of Christ. It is this knowledge which led to the realization that an error in carbon-14 dating of as much as 800-1000 years, similar to the discontinuity which runs across southern Europe, had been inadvertently applied to large segments of the North American continent. Perhaps anomalies such as the carbon-14 date of more than 1000 B.C. for a wooden beam at Teotihuacan should not have been so readily dismissed." [Hobby, Hobby, and Smith, "The Cardinal Shift," Angular Chronology . . . , Chapter Three; p.33, op cit]

A final note of DRASTIC significance is summed up in the following quote [summarization mine]:

"Much work has to be done to provide the scientific community reliable and accurate paleomagnetic declinations for the time interval 4000-1000 BP. The main problem is (Bőhnel 2006, priv. commun.) the precise and absolute age determination of a rock and the precise paleomagnetic determination. Even the best data now available will complicate testing of the Fuson hypothesis. The following obstacle for our research may seem surprising: Mayanists do not know the correct relationship of the Maya calendar (expressed in the Long Count, MD) to our “christian” calendar (which may be expressed in Julian Days, JD). This problem is known as “the correlation problem.” According to the traditional and often used Goodman-Martinez-Thompson [GMT] correlation (e.g., Thompson, 1935), we need to add 584285 days to MD to get JD.

However, there are serious objections against GMT (e.g., Vollemaere 1994, Böhm and Böhm, 1996, or Verbelen, 2000). When astronomical observations (like aspects of the planets and eclipses), which has been decoded from the famous Maya picture book called Dresden Codex (DC), were analyzed, one found that the values of the “correlation” differs dramatically from the GMT value. Vollemaere (Vol) found 774080 days, Böhm and Böhm (B+B) 622261 days and Verbelen (Verb) 739615 days. The difference is huge, e.g. 520 years(!!) between GMT and Vol, and 104 years between GMT and B+B (in both cases the history by Vol, Ver or B+B correlation is shifted in direction to our present time). The uncertain “timing” between Maya and our culture is an additional big obstacle for our testing because the alignment may change significantly during 100 years (see Fig. 3 for the time interval around 1000 AD)." [ibid., Klokočník, ET AL ; Section 4]

Archaeologists and others may establish relative dates within any correlation, including the GMT (Goodman-Martinez-Thompson). But it should never be forgotten that the entire framework of New World dating may have to be adjusted farther back in time. When I first explained Angular Chronology to the Carrasco husband-wife team, with whom I became good friends when visiting their hacienda in Merida, Yucatan, they first became very alarmed, presuming the five years of work the wife had completed on the ceramic sequences at Bonampak would have to be completely reorganized, until they realized that the entire block of dates would merely have to be adjusted backward in time. Bonampak is reachable by vehicle from Palenque. The trip is about 100 kilometers of (I know from experience) sometimes very slow and arduous driving. Bonampak was a very large city from the Classic period and is famous for its brilliant murals depicting 8th century Maya court life, ritual and battle. The murals were preserved for centuries by a coating of calcite washed down from the ceilings.

I have found that, absent very strong personal prejudices for a variety of reasons, other archaeologists are not troubled, but rather relieved by Angular Chronology, and each immediately identifies how it can resolve various anomalous data, some of which I had not yet recognized, especially with regard to those sites and cultures with which they are most familiar and at which they have labored, often for many years (unfortunately, there is a great deal of 'turf' in our profession). For example, once the Carrascos realized I could be trusted, they showed me a drawing they had made from a stela at Bonampak, an eagle with a serpent in its mouth. I was stunned, because I thought it originated in the time of the much later Aztecs. As site research still had not been finalized, they ask that I mention it to no one until they were published. I have kept it to myself for 20 years. Such astonishing corrections to our picture of the history of the Americas have attained proportions which demand a serious reconstruction, and we must swim against the tide to develop it. Conflict is tiring; we would rather gather around a table at our favorite little Cantina and enjoy one another's company over a pitcher of cold beer, discussing the days activities and engaging with the (always interested, congenial, and helpful) locals, even those of us who speak español machete!

The same holds true for geologists. When I first discussed the Cardinal Shift with my Structural Geology professor at Tulane during the period when I myself was still uncertain, I expected an immediate and perhaps strong, but I hoped instructive, correction, I was surprised that he seemed unphased; he realized that it was not a contradiction of plate techtonics, but relied upon an agency not addressed within any context of the Drift model. This reaction, barring bias, has been somewhat uniform. As Julia A. Hendon emphasized in her abstract,

"This paper explores certain methodological issues relevant to the interpretation of archaeological data derived from surface survey. Recognizing the significance of survey to the study of regional settlement patterns, I argue that how we classify these data bears directly on our ability to reconstruct the past. Comparison of site typologies created by the Seibal and Copán projects with their excavation results provides a way to evaluate the accuracy of site classifications based on surface features. I discuss the effectiveness of the typologies in capturing variation pertinent to the study of social organization and site function, and consider the importance of variation within sites, within types, and across types not expressed in the typologies to suggest that such elaborate typologies assume a higher degree of data visibility than is generally possible. The analysis underscores the critical role excavation plays in mesoamerican archaeology as a source of data unavailable through survey." [Hendon, Julia A., "The Interpretation of Survey Data: Two Case Studies from the Maya Area"; Latin American Antiquity 3(1), 1992, pp. 22-42, Copyright, Society for American Archaeology]

This recognition of the importance of proper classification is most fortunate, for so much work remains to be completed in both geology and archaeology, often intertwined, that significant scientific progress can only be attained if the majority of professionals in both fields are open-minded and willing to adjust their "facts." We archaeologists and geologists have certainly taken our lumps. But we possess a redeeming characteristic: we realize that facts do not change. It is our INTERPRETATION of the facts that evolves over time, and it is TIME that acts as the ultimate Umpire.

Returning to our principal subject, and leaving unaddressable for the moment where the planet Nibiru is or was located, the arrival during the 40th Sari may be a reflection of a Nommo time interval, rather than the orbit of Nibiru. Is it possible that the red-haloed Nibiru might not be the planet of the Anunaki, but rather the planet of the Oannes? What would the interpretive consequences of such a supposition be? How would they affect a possible designation of which known planet in our solar system, or one orbiting a very much nearer star than Sirius B, the Anunaki might actually have come? Is it possible that Nibiru is not the name of a particular planet, but of a class or association designatiom, for example, the Federation of planets in Star Trek, which included both the Anunaki and Oannes home worlds? Such federations are inevitable in the future after mankind has sorted out its problems and decided to work together as a species, rather than a hodge-podge of nations devoted to hegemony, exploitation, genocide and war.

Berosus reported that, in addition to the Sarus, two other time intervals existed: the Neros of 600 years, and the Sossus, 60 years. Interestingly, a Sarus is the square of 60, 3600, but the Neros is merely a decimal multiple of the Sosos (60 x 10 = 600), perhaps for convenience. Anu was attributed the number of the Sossus; Therefore, his numeric equivalent was 60. the highest possible for the six men of the Anunaki dynasty.

Was the mysterious Galzu a messenger of the Monitors, the Oannes, IE, the Nommo? If so, as he appeared to the Anunaki as one of their own in the flesh during his first appearance, as recorded in The Lost Book of Enki [2002,(Sitchen), Bear & Company, Rochester, Vermont] such a deception (“By that Anu was greatly puzzled. A secret emissary by that name to earth by me was never sent.” [p. 270] requires extraordinary psychic power. So powerful was the deception that Anu attributed it to the “Creator of All,” the ultimate god of the Anunaki, and as a sign that earth was for the Earthlings who were formed of a hominid evolved on our planet, and therefore, that the role of the Anunaki (from the beginning) was not to create a race of slaves to exploit for their own purposes with the justification, “Hath not the potter power over the clay . . . ?,” but by the will of the Creator of All to dramatically accelerate the evolution of that primate to mankind via genetic engineering, thereafter to introduce civilization to them, and thereafter to depart, not continue to rule over them [p. 271].

The Dogon tribe of Mali have a Segui celebration every sixty years . . . The Egyptians had such a period associated with Osiris . . . The Egyptian henti period consisted of two periods of 60 years, consistent with the Dogon custom of “uniting two Segui.” Temple stated,

“My own predilection when considering the period of 60 years is to think in terms of a synchronization of the orbital periods of the two planets of Jupiter and Saturn, for these come together in nearly sixty years. The orbital period of Jupiter is approximately twelve years, and [the orbital period of] Saturn is approximately thirty years. Five times twelve is sixty and two times thirty is also sixty. . . souls therefore [according to Egyptian mythology] are punished for such like periods.”

With respect to Jupiter and Saturn, he cites Apuleius:

“ . . . there are certain circuits (orbits) of the stars which perpetually observe a legitimate course, but which the sagacity of men can scarcely comprehend. . . . the supreme of all of them is that of the fixed stars (planets) . . . the second is given to Saturn and the third to Jupiter . . .”

“A cycle of sixty years is so long that no single person can live long enough to verify its recurrence a second time. . . . No wonder then that the Dogon maintain that a priest who 'united two Segui' is really rather special. . . . to unite two of the cycles is to achieve a henti . . . which the Egyptians describe as both 120 years and as eternal.” [p.259].

Stonehenge has 60 stones in its outer circle, the cycle of Vrihihaspati. “'The number 60 is the base of the . . . Saros of 3,600 years of the Chaldees, . . . the decimal part of the cycle of the Neros period' . . . “the Indian Brahmans saying that it arose from five revolutions of the planet Jupiter.” [ibid. This cycle is called the Brihaspati in India, the name of Jupiter in Sanskrit, a cycle of 60 years as prepared by Kepler [De Stella Nova and De Vero Anno).]

“We thus see that Santillana and von Dechend tell us in “Hamlets Mill, 'A “mighty conjunction” thus corresponds to the revolution of one angle or corner of a trigon of Jupiter-Saturn conjunctions . . . specifically sixty-year cycles of the West Sudan, where the Dogon live . . . The Dogon associate a 60-year period with the creation of the world by Amma. . . . [and were] aware of the twenty-year subdivision too.” [p. 260] “The Dogon even break 60 down into “5 series of 12” and “twice thirty.” [ibid.]

The Mesoamerican calendar, as discussed by my friend, Jeff Colville in his dissertation, “The Structure of Mesoamerican Numeral Systems With a Comparison to Non-Mesoamerican Systems,” addresses in Yucatecan Maya the occurrence of the group numeral, 5 in the base 20 (the numerical designation of Utu according to Sitchen) Mayan calendar obtained from the Olmecs, and the lower group numeral 10 in their spoken language. The Zapotecs, on the other hand, adjacent to them in the Mexican highlands, had only the group numeral 5 in their spoken language. The number 12 also occurs, but is special in that it is constructed by postfixing 2 to 10, whereas the other teens prefix unit numerals to 10, though Tozzer (1921:99) asserted that the method used to form 12 was used to form all the higher teens. [Coleville: p.186]

According to Sitchen, royal Anunaki women were assigned mid-decimal numbers such as 5 (Ninhursag), 15 (Innana), etc. Thus, the Mesoamerican calendar within that context indicates that Utu, whose numerical designation was 20, and Ninhursag, whose numerical designation was 5, were the original founders of civilization in the New World, the western hemisphere, where the bar (group numeral for 5) and dot (subtrahend "ONE") system occurs in the base 20 Maya Long Count. Temple continues.

"These two, 260 and 365-day calendars, could also be synchronised to generate the Calendar Round, a period of 18980 days or approximately 52 years [a period central to Velikovsky's theses and also related in a Hebrew manuscript known as the "Little Genesis" which also utilizes a linear count of years termed, "Year of the World." This document is in the Special Collections area of the Brigham Young University Library]. The completion and observance of this Calendar Round sequence was of ritual significance to a number of Mesoamerican cultures. A third major calendar form known as the Long Count is found in the inscriptions of several Mesoamerican cultures, most famously those of the Maya civilization who developed it to its fullest extent during the Classic period (ca. 200–900 CE). The Long Count provided the ability to uniquely identify days over a much longer period of time, by combining a sequence of day-counts or cycles of increasing length, calculated or set from a particular date in the mythical past. Most commonly, five such higher-order cycles in a modified vigesimal (base-20) count were used, generating a linear progression of days to span a period of roughly 5125 solar years. . . . The use of Mesoamerican calendrics is one of the cultural traits that Paul Kirchoff used in his original formulation to define Mesoamerica as a culture area. Therefore the use of Mesoamerican calendars is specific to Mesoamerica and is not found outside its boundaries." [ibid]

It should be noted also that the Maya Bar and Dot system is generally believed and taught to be limited to Mesoamerica, as the following example attests:

"Even after the subsequent colonialisation of Mesoamerican territory by Europeans and the consequent adoption of the Julian Calendar, some indigenous communities continue to use aspects of Mesoamerican calendars in parallel with the Western system, such as among K'iche' Maya communities of the Guatemalan highlands and the Mixe of Oaxaca. [Drawn from: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Mesoamerican_calendars]

The restriction of the Bar and Dot system to Mesoamerica may not have been the case. While Troy and I were taking an archaeology course at Tulane taught by a tenure-track professor, that professor included in his lectures the assertion that the Bar and Dot numerical system was restricted to Mesoamerica. However, during research pertinent to a course I was taking in Precolumbian Art, I encountered a piece of fabric unearthed from beneath the Temple of Pachacamac in Peru which had a clearly discernable Bar and Dot depiction. During lunch one day, we were joined by that professor and engaged in a discussion. I questioned his assertion of the restriction of the Bar and Dot system to Mesoamerica and presented a Zerox copy of the Pachacamac fabric, anticipating an engaging commentary. Instead, he became so distraught that he picked up his tray and moved to another table. I still got my "A" for the course, although on the final, I disputed the assertion, as it (still persisted) in one of the essay questions!

I shall probably add additional information and discussion to this post later, as is my practice with all posts on this site.

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